National projects completed

Researcher groups projects (Research Council of Lithuania)

Challenges to welfare state systems in Lithuania and Sweden

Project leader: dr. Jolanta Aidukaitė
Duration: 2017 10 03 – 2020 09 30
No. S-MIP-17-130


This project aims to explore the challenges, problems and future prospects of the pension and family supports systems – the most important constituent parts of the welfare state – in the contemporary Lithuanian and Swedish societies. Special attention will be paid to developments in the last ten years – since 2007 up to now. During this period, countries have experienced economic and financial crisis, which in Lithuania and Sweden was felt in different years, and to different degrees, countries have also differed in policy measures implemented to overcome the crisis. This period is also characterized by new demographic challenges, which can have long-term consequences for the future of the welfare state systems.

More specifically, the research has the following objectives:

1. To critically review modern theories of the welfare state, the challenges to the welfare state in the Nordic and Baltic countries. To review the theoretical and empirical literature analysing Lithuanian and Swedish pension insurance and family support systems, revealing the peculiarities, traditions, contemporary issues, the influence of globalization and Europeanization, threats posed by migration.
2. To examine the similarities and differences between the Lithuanian and Swedish pension systems, highlighting the problems and their solutions; and the possibility to implement in Lithuania the Swedish notional defined contribution (NDC) pension system and its potential impact on poverty and inequality levels.
3. To compare the family support systems in Lithuania and Sweden, to highlight the essential differences and similarities; and to explore its impact on female participation in the labour market and gender equality.

The comparative analysis of the Lithuanian and Swedish welfare state systems will respond to a number of theoretical and empirical questions that are relevant to the contemporary welfare state studies: whether in reforming social policy, policy makers have to encourage private responsibilities or to increase the state’s obligations. Should the pensions system be reformed so as to increase the influence of the private pension funds? How should be the pay-as-you-go principle combined with the cumulative principle in reforming pension insurance? What kind of family policy measures are best suitable to solve the problems of child poverty and to ensure gender equality?

The primary data for this project will be collected with the help of semi-structured expert interviews (in Lithuania and Sweden) and a representative nation-wide survey in Lithuania and Sweden. The project will also utilize the national and international statistical sources, the EUROSTAT data and the MISSOC data on social protection in Europe.

The project will be carried at the Lithuanian Social Research Centre (LSTC) in cooperation with the Stockholm University Linnaeus Center on Social Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe (SpaDe).

National research programme “Modernity in Lithuania“ (Research Council of Lithuania)

Ethnicity, inclusion and agency in the narratives of national minorities on the restoration of Lithuanian statehood in 1990s

Project leader: dr. Kristina Šliavaitė 
Project duration: 2021 03 08 – 2022 12 31
No. S-MOD-21-3


The project aim was to investigate how the members of national minority groups in Lithuania memorize the historical events and processes of restoration of Lithuanian statehood at the end of the 20th century. We answer to the several questions – what role in these processes is attributed to the members of national minority groups by the members of these groups and how social memory of these events may differ depending on individual social characteristics. We focus on the narratives of members of national minorities on the period from the establishment of Sąjūdis movement till 1993 when the occupant soviet army left Lithuania. We analyse both written documents (the selected media sources in Lithuanian, Russian, Polish languages of particular periods) and unstructured or life story interview data. This research review how relatively recent historical events of restoration of Lithuanian independence are constructed/memorized be national minorities (Poles, Russians, individuals of mixed ethnic identity) in such sites as Vilnius and Vilnius area, Šalčininkai and Visaginas. The project enable to give voice to national minority members and reveal their active role in the restoration of Lithuanian statehood. This research is an important input in the creation of solidarity of different social groups. The aim of the project was not to reconstruct events, but analysis of the interaction of social memories and identities, context (mass media) and social memory.


Lietuvos valstybingumo atkūrimas tautinių mažumų perspektyvose: etniškumas, įtrauktis, pasirinkimai (The restoration of Lithuanian statehood from the perspectives of national minorities: ethnicity, inclusion, choices).Vilnius: Lietuvos socialinių mokslų centras, Sociologijos institutas/BALTO print. 268 p. ISBN 978-609-8324-03-7, eISBN 978-609-8324-04-4.

Childlessness in Lithuania: socio-cultural changes andindividual experiences in modern soviety

Project leaders: dr. Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė (2017 03 01 – 2018 01 04), dr. Lina Šumskaitė (2018 01 05 – 2019 12 31)
Project duration: 2017 03 01 – 2019 12 31
Project number: S-MOD-17-3


The project focuses on a social phenomenon of the modern society – childlessness, which can be voluntary, physiological or determined by the life course. We consider childlessness not only as a potential demographic challenge, but also as a manifestation of modernity, requiring a more thorough analysis which would contribute to the fields of family sociology and demography. The aim of the project is to explore different forms of childlessness considering it as the phenomenon which is influenced by the components from several layers of social reality; to analyse the subjective meanings of the phenomenon in different generations and indicate the individual, familial and socio‐ cultural determinants of childlessness. While performing the project the secondary analysis of international datasets (from European Values Survey, European Social Survey, Gender and Generation Survey), quantitative and qualitative media content analysis and qualitative research, the interviews with childless women from two generations (27–49 and 50‐69) belonging to the different social groups will be used. Analysis of secondary micro data will enable to describe forms of childlessness by discerning their typical characteristcs and compare them to the ones observed in different European countries (focusing on Lithuania). It is expected that qualitative research will significantly improve understanding of this social phenomenon by identifying and describing social components related to childlessness: active/ constrained choice to have/ not have children and interconnections of denial of this choice with the general socio‐cultural context. The media content analysis will provide knowledge on general socio‐cultural discourses of childlessness.

Lithuanian Studies and Dissemination Programme (2016–2024) (Research Council of Lithuania)

Loneliness: experience, causes and challenges to social cohesion

Project leader: dr. Margarita Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė
Project duration: 2020 – 2022
Project team: dr. Sarmitė Mikulionienė, dr. Gražina Rapolienė, Vaida Tretjakova, dr. Joana Butėnaitė-Svitkievicz.
Project number: S-LIP-20-23


Loneliness – an unpleasant experience due to the mismatch between the number and quality of desired and actual social relations, is often termed “an epidemic of the modern society” in the public discourse. Its impact on individuals and development of society is tremendous. Research shows that loneliness has significant impact on individual physical or mental health, increases mortality and has other social costs, i.e. increasing expenses for health care and accommodation in nursing homes. As a consequence of social exclusion, loneliness is usually associated with older people, but research increasingly shows that younger age groups experience it as well, for example, in the postcommunist countries even more often than older population in the Western European countries. The indicators of loneliness place Lithuania on the top among the countries of the European Union. The aim of this project is to analyse the scope, factors and experiences of loneliness among young and middle aged population. Based on the data of the European Social Survey and a nationally representative survey, we will aim to estimate the prevalence and factors of loneliness in Lithuania. Additionally, a qualitative study will be employed to analyse the conception and experiences of loneliness among young and middle aged people and to investigate challenges to social inclusion they face. On the base of the research results we will prepare recommendations for social policy.

Ethno-confessional identity and social inclusion in Lithuanian society after 1990: the cases of Russian Orthodox and Polish Catholics communities

Project leader: dr. Andrius Marcinkevičius
Project duration: 2019 05 01 – 2022 04 30
Project number: S-LIP-19-60.Project team: dr. Monika Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, dr. Kristina Šliavaitė, Janina Koliato


The project investigates how ethno-confessional identity is constructed by members of different generations of Russian Orthodox and Poles Catholics in Lithuania. The project aims to identify the main social factors that shape the processes of social inclusion or exclusion of these social groups in different contexts as reflected by informants and as revealed in mass media and archival documents. The cases of Russian Orthodox and Poles Catholics enable to address the questions of interplay of ethnic and confessional identities in different generations, and how belonging to religious and ethnic minority (Russian Orthodox) and ethnic minority but religious majority (Poles Catholic) in Lithuania shape the processes of social inclusion or exclusion in different social contexts identified by informants. The researchers made the overview and analysis of policies and legal documents that regulate the rights of traditional religious communities in Lithuania since 1990; analysed the selected historical documents in archives to reconstruct the developmental path of particular ethno-religious communities; aimed to identify how ethno-confessional commonalities and differences are reflected in historical documents; conducted analysis of printed media in Polish and Russian languages and periodical publications issued by selected religious communities to identify the prevailing themes and issues addressed; conducted qualitative fieldwork among ethno-religious communities of Russian Orthodox and / or Poles Catholics in Vilnius, Kaunas, Visaginas, Švenčionys, Šalčininkai.



Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, M., Marcinkevičius, A., Šliavaitė, K. 2022. Etniškumo ir religijos sąveika kintančiuose istoriniuose ir socialiniuose kontekstuose: Lietuvos lenkai ir rusai[The Interplay of Ethnicity and Religion in Changing Historical and Social Contexts: Poles and Russians in Lithuania]. Vilnius: Lietuvos socialinių mokslų centras, Sociologijos institutas/BALTO print,  260 p. ISBN 978-609-96239-8-6 (spausdintinis), eISBN 978-609-96239-9-3.

Marcinkevičius, A. 2021. Rusų etninės ir religinės tapatybės konstravimas Sąjūdžio laikotarpiu Kaune leistoje spaudoje rusų kalba. [Constructing Ethnic and Cnfessional Identity of Russian Population in the Press Published in Kaunas During the Sąjūdis period] //Kauno istorijos metraštis. VDU, 2021/19, p. 105-123. ISSN 1822-2617, eISSN 2335-8734.

Šliavaitė, K. 2021. Kalba, religija ir etniškumas mokyklose rusų ir lenkų mokomosiomis kalbomis Lietuvoje: įvairovės (ne)atpažinimo praktikos. [Language, Religion and Ethnicity at the  Schools with Russian and Polish Language of Instruction in Lithuania: Practices of (Non)Recognition of Cultural Diversity] //Filosofija. Sociologija.  Lietuvos mokslų akademijos leidykla. 2021. T. 32, Nr. 2, p. 133-140. ISSN 0235-7186.

Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, M. 2020. Etninių mažumų grupių religinės organizacijos Lietuvoje: etninio ir religinio identiteto aspektai ir jų sąsajos. [Religious Organizations of Ethnic Minority Groups in Lithuania: Some Aspects of Ethnic and Religious Identity and their Interaction] //Kultūra ir visuomenė: socialinių tyrimų žurnalas. 2020, Nr. 11 (2), p. 31-53. ISSN 2335-8777.

Social and historical justice in Lithuania: ethnic and generational perspective

Project leader: dr. Neringa Klumbytė (Miami university, USA)
Project duration: 2016 04 01 – 2018 12 31
Project number: S-LIP-031/2016
Project team: dr. Monika Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, dr. Andrius Marcinkevičius, dr. Kristina Šliavaitė, Janina Koliato


This project researched how different generation Lihuanian Russians and Lithuanians experience social and historical injustice. We based our analysis on the former research on social exclusion (Kideckel 2008, Klumbytė 2010, Šliavaitė 2005), according to which experiences of unfairness and injustice corelate with experiences of social, economic, and political marginalization and social insecurity. In Lithuania, in the last decade the studies of ethnic relations have focused on minority groups integration into the mainstream society (Kasatkina, Leončikas 2003, Beresnevičiūtė 2005, Muižnieks N. 2010). This research provided a different theoretical venue of analysis by engaging theories on human rights and social justice as well as ethnicity. We focused on interconnections among social exclusion, injustice and ethnicity in the changing historical, economic, political, and social contexts. We asked such questions as, when justice for some individuals and groups become injustice for others; how social exclusion is connected to understanting of historical justice; how experience of injustice are different among people of different generation, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. The qualitative reserach was conducted in Vilnius, Klaipėda, Kaunas, Visaginas.



Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, M., Klumbytė, N., Marcinkevičius, A., Šliavaitė, K. 2018. Socialinis ir istorinis teisingumas daugiaetninėje Lietuvos visuomenėje: sampratos, patirtys ir kontekstai. [Social and Historical Justice in Multiethnic Lithuania: Ideas, Expriences, and Contexts]. Vilnius: Lietuvos socialinių tyrimų centras/BALTO print,  320 p. ISBN 978-609-8193-19-0.


Šliavaitė, K. 2020. Memory, identity and schooling: diverging and overlapping narratives about World War II and its outcomes at the schools with Russian as the language of instruction in Lithuania.//Journal of Baltic Studies. 2020, Vol. 51, Issue 3, Routledge. ISSN 0162-9778.

Klumbytė, N. 2019. Sovereign Uncertainty and the Dangers to Liberalism at the Baltic Frontier. Slavic Review, 78 (2): 336-347.

Frėjutė-Rakauskienė, M. 2018. Socialinio teisingumo aspektai rusų etninės grupės pilietinėje veikloje Lietuvoje. [Aspects of social justice in the civic participation of Russian ethnic group in Lithuania]. Filosofija. Sociologija. Lietuvos mokslų akademija, 29 (4), p. 239-245. ISSN 0235-7186.

Marcinkevičius, A. 2018. Holokaustas kaip istorinio teisingumo diskurso konstravimo aspektas Lietuvos spaudoje lietuvių ir rusų kalba. [Constructing Historical Justice Discourse in Lithuanian and Russian Press in Lithuania: The Case of Holocaust]. Filosofija. Sociologija. 29 (4), p. 246–252. ISSN 0235-7186.

Klumbytė, N. 2017. Bipolinio istorinio teisingumo struktūros ir politinė atskirtis. Lietuvos rusakalbių prisiminimai apie Antrąjį pasaulinį karą Lietuvos ir Rusijos istorijos politikos kontekste. [Political Exclusion and Bipolar Structures of Historical Justice. Memories of WWII among Lithuanian Russian-Speakers in the Context of the Politics of History in Lithuania and Russia]. //Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas. 2017/2 (41 ), p. 137-168. ISSN 1392-3358

National research programme “Welfare Society“ (Research Council of Lithuania)

Youth labour force participation in elderly care sector addressing population ageing

Project leader: dr. Laima Okunevičiūtė Neverauskienė
Duration: 2020 04 01 – 2021 12 31
No. S-GEV-20-8


European population is aging rapidly. Therefore, according to forecasts in various countries, the need for help for the elderly will increase significantly in the future. Such a situation will not only require additional material financial resources, but will also lead to a labour shortage, because according to various research, the social care sector is not an attractive place to work, especially for young people. To this day, the elderly care sector is distinguished by the fact that it is exclusively the work sphere of older persons and women. This situation leads us to raise the questions: a) how to attract and retain young people in the elderly care sector? b) is it possible/how to address the problem of workforce feminization in this sector?

How to attract and retain young people in providing the elderly care services, how to deal with the particular problem of workforce feminization in this sector are questions that require a rather operative answer in shaping Lithuanian social policy. So far, no representative, in-depth research has been conducted in Lithuania on how young people are committed or why not committed to work in the elderly care sector. Therefore, focusing the project on exploring the possibilities of attracting young people to the elderly care sector is a new and very relevant topic. The results of the project will attract public attention to this problem and we hope will help to increase youth employment in the elderly care sector. This would not only help to improve the structure of labour market in this sector, to facilitate the extension of services to the elderly, but also would enhance solidarity between generations, address the problem of workforce feminization in this sector.

Elderly living alone: trends, profiles and challenges for intergeneration integration

Project leader: dr. Sarmitė Mikulionienė.
Project duration: 2017 – 2018
Project team: dr. Gražina Rapolienė, dr. Natalija Valavičienė, dr. Margarita Gedvilaitė Kordušienė.
Project number: GER-001/2017


Tyrimo projektu siekiama atskleisti Lietuvos vienų gyvenančių vyresnio amžiaus (60 m. ir vyresnių) asmenų grupės demografinės tendencijas, jų socialinės įtraukties lygį, kasdienio gyvenimo praktikas, jų gyvenimo kelyje iškylančias rizikas tapti socialiai atskirtiems, izoliuotiems ir vienišiems. Tai daugiadisciplininis tyrimas (integruojantis demografijos, sociologijos, socialinės gerontologijos ir socialinės politikos žinias ir metodologines prieigas), turintis dvejopą paskirtį: sukurti naujų mokslinių žinių apie vienus gyvenančius 60 m. ir vyresnius asmenis Lietuvoje ir siūlyti moksliškai pagrįstus viešosios politikos sprendimus, mažinančius jų socialinę atskirtį.

Rezultatai. Paskelbta monografija „Vyresnio amžiaus žmonės, gyvenimas po vieną ir socialinė atskirtis“ (Mikulionienė, Rapolienė, Valavičienė, 2018), socialinės politikos trumpraštis, mokslo straipsniai, žodiniai pranešimai konferencijose, konferencijų pranešimų santraukos, surengtas nacionalinis mokslinis-praktinis seminaras. Sukurta veiklos įvertinimo metodika subjektams, siekiantiems vyresnio amžiaus žmonių socialinės įtraukties stiprinimo. Sukurti šie empirinių duomenų rinkiniai: 2011 m. visuotinio gyventojų surašymo 60 metų ir vyresnių gyventojų reprezentatyvi mikroimtis (N=2557); sociologinės 60 metų ir vyresnių Lietuvos gyventojų apklausos (N=1009) duomenys; kokybinis tyrimas – pusiau struktūruotų interviu (N=27) medžiaga. 

Mikulionienė S., Rapolienė G., Valavičienė N. 2018. Vyresnio amžiaus žmonės, gyvenimas po vieną ir socialinė atskirtis. Monografija. Lietuvos socialinių tyrimų centras, Vilnius: Baltoprint.

Rapolienė, G., Mikulionienė, S., Gedvilaitė-Kordušienė, M. ir Jurkevits, A. (2018) Socialiai įtraukti ar atskirti? Vyresnio amžiaus žmonių, gyvenančių vienų, patirtys. Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, 16, p. 70-82. doi: 10.15388/STEPP.2018.16.11441. 

С. Микуленене, А. Юркевич, Г. Раполене (2019). „Потребность в общении и poль эйджизма в eе реализации: качественное исследование пожилых людей“. Успехи геронтологии, 2019. Т. 32. № 1–2. С. 273–281. 

Socialinis poveikis.

Projekto naudos gavėjams – praktikams tiesiogiai dirbantiems su vyresnio amžiaus žmonėmis, ir plačiajai visuomenei (ypač pagyvenusiems žmonėms ir jų artimiesiems, globėjams), švietimo institucijoms, rengiančioms atitinkamus specialistus, mokslininkams, nevyriausybinėms organizacijoms siekiančioms mažinti vyresnio amžiaus žmonių atskirtį, ministerijoms, politikos formuotojams ir vietos bendruomenių aktyvistams projekto rezultatai svarbūs tuo, kad:

1) buvo teoriškai pagrįsta vyresnio amžiaus žmonių socialinės atskirties ir jos dėmenų koncepcija; 2) buvo apibūdintos demografines gyventojų senėjimo tendencijos ir išanalizuoti Lietuvos vienų gyvenančių vyresnio amžiaus žmonių gerovės rodikliai nacionaliniame ir tarptautiniame kontekste taikant socialinės atskirties teorinę perspektyvą; 3) buvo atskleisti vienų gyvenančių 60 + Lietuvos gyventojų socialinės įtraukties-atskirties subjektyvios patirties pavyzdžiai; 4) buvo sudaryta subjektų (vyresnio amžiaus žmonių dienos centrams, globos namams, bendruomenės centrams ir pan.), siekiančių vyresnio amžiaus žmonių socialinės įtraukties stiprinimo, veiklos įvertinimo metodika ir viešosios politikos pasiūlymai susijusioms valstybės įstaigoms ir NVO.

Regional disparities of welfare in Lithuania  

Project leader: dr. Vidmantas Daugirdas 
Duration: 2017 – 2018
No. GER-005/2017


Lietuvoje didėja teritorinė atskirtis, formuojasi ilgalaikiai probleminiai regionai, ryškėja gyventojų gerovės regioniniai skirtumai. Šių teritorijų paplitimą, jų gyventojų gerovės ypatybes būtina pažinti, siekiant užbėgti už akių šalies teritorinės plėtros netolygumo didėjimui. Projekto tikslas – atskleisti gerovės regioninius skirtumus ir jų priežastis Lietuvoje bei pagrįsti priemones šiems skirtumams mažinti. Vykdant šį tyrimą bus nustatyti Lietuvos ilgalaikiai probleminiai regionai, jų paplitimo mastai ir vyraujančių problemų pobūdis, sudarytas ir apskaičiuotas probleminių regionų teritorinės atskirties indeksas, įvertinta kintanti miesto ir kaimo gyvenviečių reikšmė gyvenviečių sistemoje, išanalizuota gyventojų demografinė, socialinė, socioekonominė struktūra bei raidos tendencijos, įvertinti darbo rinkos ir darbo išteklių (darbingų žmonių) pasiskirstymo ypatumai, šalies nedarbo, užimtumo bei aktyvumo teritorinė diferenciacija, jos dinamika, įvertinta jauno amžiaus (15‐29 metų) žmonių gerovė, išanalizuotos naujausios kaimo teritorijų raidos tendencijos, įvertinant ES paramą Lietuvos žemės ūkiui ir kaimo bendruomenėms, žemėnaudos ir žemėvaldos kaitos tendencijos, jų įtaka gyventojų gerovei, išskirtos galimos grėsmės šalies probleminių regionų raidai. Svarbus projekto rezultatas – buvo parengtos rekomendacijos ir pasiūlymai valstybės valdymo institucijoms gyventojų gerovės, o kartu ir socialiniams, demografiniams bei ekonominiams skirtumams mažinti.

Quality of democracy and equal opportunities: attitudes and social practice of Lithuanians

Project leader: dr. Alina Žvinklienė 
Project duration: 2017 – 2018
Project number: GER-012/2017


The necessity and relevance of studying an issue og quality of democracy rest on the presence of critical assessments of quality of democracy in Lithuania in academic and public discourse, as well as crisis of popular trust in democratic institutions and constant low evaluation of democratic performance in the country. The projected research aims at analysing a key indicator of the argument that people’s attitudes towards assurance of the principle of equal opportunities, attitudes towards fighting against discrimination as well as real experiences in restoration of violated rights compose actual empirical measures of the quality of democracy.
One of the most important social problems of quality of democracy in Lithuania is certain attitudes of the people, mainly, the perceived insignificance of democratic institutions that persists in citizens’ consciousness. A sceptical attitude towards the democratic institutions might be determined bu the specificity of the political culture of Lithuania and personal experience of the people.

The major goal of the projected research is the sociological analysis of of social attitudes of the people and their experiences in ensuring equal opportunities and restoration of violated rights. The research aims at disclosing factors that motivate people to carry out activities in order to restore their violated rights.
The main object of the research is activities carried out by the Office of Equal Opportunities Ombudsperson in Lithuania and applicants that appeal to the Office complaining about possible discrimination. The novelty of the projected research rests on the idea that it is necessary to equally integrate sociological perspective into the research of equal opportunities and processes of democratisation since so far this area of research is heavily dominate by law and political science.
The expected results of the project are believed to be promising since factors that promote and limit the assurance of equal opportunities as well as conditions that influence civic activity and trust will be discovered and analysed.

Projects for decisions on the consequences of COVID-19 (Research Council of Lithuania)

Changes in the Lithuanian labour market and measures to overcome negative consequences in the context of COVID-19 pandemic

Project leader: dr. Laima Okunevičiūtė Neverauskienė
Project duration: 2020 06 25 – 2020 12 31
Project number: S-COV-20-29


The changes in the business environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have had a particularly severe impact on the labour market, as it has not only had to adapt to demands, but also deal with the objective need to form a system of mitigation of the negative consequences suffered by both the unemployed and the employed, as well as a system of measures to encourage and support their pro-active behaviour. The aim is to assess economic, social and psychological changes in employment, examine the expectations of those who have lost their jobs, and those who are working, with regards to future prospects of the labour market, and evaluate readiness to actively participate in addressing employment issues and other relevant problems. Taking into account the empirical results, recommendations and measures, based on the best scientific and practical experience of Lithuania and foreign countries, are being prepared in cooperation with public administration institutions to mitigate the negative effects and maintain the balance in the labour market in the long run.

Implications of COVID-19 for the human security: challenges and new opportunities

Project leader: dr. Diana Janušauskienė
Project duration: 2020 07 01 – 2020 12 31
Project number: S-COV-20-26
Project team: dr. Sarmitė Mikulionienė, Inga Gaižauskaitė


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is related not only to a threat to human life and national economies, but also to drastic changes in people’s lives. The aim is to capture unprecedented changes in people’s behaviour and thinking related to public and human security. The focus is on the quality of democracy and human security, including the issue of combining human freedoms and social well-being, changes in employment and occupation, and unemployment. Upon analysing the collected stories about changes in the daily lives of regular people and two representative surveys of the population, possible scenarios for changes will be modelled and the efforts will be put in looking for ways that would help to mitigate the negative consequences of the pandemic and seize the opportunities that arise.

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